Archetype Buildings

This section gives a short overview about archetype methodology implemented in TEASER. For exact meaning of all attributes and usage of archetype buildings, please read the docs of archetype classes and examples.

TEASER provides archetypes for residential and non-residential buildings. TEASER is based on three different studies, investigating the German building stocks.

  • non-residential buildings: [1] and [2]
  • residential buildings: [3].

TEASER methodology uses 5 basic parameters for data enrichment:

  • main usage of building
  • year of construction
  • net leased/used area
  • average height of floors
  • number of floors

Currently five different archetypes are implemented in TEASER. We are planing to integrate Tabula archetypes soon.

Non-residential

The BMVBS package contains different modules for the creation and parametrisation of typebuildings. In TEASER these typebuildings are used to set up datasets for buildings out of limited building information. For this, the methods are based on the following principles according to Lichtmess [2]:

  1. The building envelope is a function based on the building’s net leased area
  2. The building envelope can automatically be assigned to the thermal zones

These principles are mainly used to handle the building envelopes. In addition it is necessary to use statistic data for the following aspects:

  • number of thermal zones
  • division of net leased area into zone areas
  • wall constructions
  • properties of construction materials

The number of zones and respective zone areas differ for different types of buildings. Detailed information for specific types are given below. The connection between the building envelope area and the building net leased area is based on BMVBS [1] where various administrative buildings were investigated. In addition to this relationship, it is possible to refine the dataset with further information about the structure of the building using a method from Kaag [4]. Wall construction is often a function of year of construction. Such relationships are provided by BMVBS [5] and are enriched by data for materials from DIN 12524 and DIN 4108-4 [6] [7].

Office

The office module contains a multi zone building according to BMVBS [1]. In detail the net leased area is divided into the following thermal zone areas:

  1. Office (50% of net leased area)
  2. Floor (25% of net leased area)
  3. Storage (15% of net leased area)
  4. Meeting (4% of net leased area)
  5. Restroom (4% of net leased area)
  6. ICT (2% of net leased area)

Institute module

The institute module contains a multi zone building which is based on an office building with an additional laboratory zone. The area of the laboratory zone is based on the data from the Forschungszentrum Jülich [8]. According to the dataset from Jülich, the typebuilding institute is based on the buildingsclass of BWZK with the number 2200 which represents all institute buildings which are not institute type 4 or institute type 8 [9]. Laboratory zones are verntialed using a central AHU system with humidification and de-humidification. In detail the net leased area is divided into the following thermal zone areas:

  1. Office (40% of net leased area)
  2. Floor (25% of net leased area)
  3. Storage (10% of net leased area)
  4. Meeting (4% of net leased area)
  5. Restroom (4% of net leased area)
  6. ICT (2% of net leased area)
  7. Laboratory (15% of the net leased area)

Institute4 module

The institute type 4 module contains a multi zone building which is based on an office building with an additional laboratory zone. The area of the laboratory zone is based on data from the Forschungszentrum Jülich [8]. According to the dataset from Jülich, the typebuilding institute type 4 is based on the buildingsclass of BWZK with the number 2240 [9]. Laboratory zones are verntialed using a central AHU system with humidification and de-humidification. In detail the net leased area is divided in the following thermal zone areas:

  1. Office (37.5% of net leased area)
  2. Floor (22.5% of net leased area)
  3. Storage (10% of net leased area)
  4. Meeting (4% of net leased area)
  5. Restroom (4% of net leased area)
  6. ICT (2% of net leased area)
  7. Laboratory (20% of the net leased area)

Institute8 module

The institute type 8 module contains a multi zone building which is based on an office building with an additional laboratory zone. The area of the laboratory zone is based on data from the Forschungszentrum Jülich [8]. According to the dataset from Jülich, the typebuilding institute type 8 is based on the buildingsclass of BWZK with the number 2240 [9]. Laboratory zones are verntialed using a central AHU system with humidification and de-humidification. In detail the net leased area is divided in the following thermal zone areas:

  1. Office (10% of net leased area)
  2. Floor (18% of net leased area)
  3. Storage (2% of net leased area)
  4. Meeting (4% of net leased area)
  5. Restroom (4% of net leased area)
  6. ICT (2% of net leased area)
  7. Laboratory (60% of the net leased area)

Residential

IWU

SingleFamilyDwelling

The residential module contains a single zone building where the envelopes are computed based on a method from the IWU [3]. In detail the net leased area is divided into the following thermal zone area:

  1. Living (100% of net leased area)

Tabula

This is an archetype building for german single family house according to TABULA building typology (http://webtool.building-typology.eu/#bm). As TABULA defines one reference building, whereas TEASER wants to provide a methodology to generate individual building information, this archetype underlies some assumptions. The made assumptions are explained in the following:

Each building has four orientations for outer walls and windows (north, east, south and west), two orientations for rooftops (south and north), with tilt of 35 degree and one orientation for ground floors and one door ( default orientation is west). The area of each surface is calculated using the product of the given net_leased_area and specific estimation factors. These estimation factors where build by dividing the given ‘surface area’ by the ‘reference floor area’ in TABULA. The estimation factors are calculated for each building period (‘construction year class’). Please note that the number and height of the floors given in TEASER does not have any effect on the surface area for heat transmission, but is only used to calculate the interior wall area, which is not specified in TABULA at all. Further, TABULA does not specify any specific user profile, by default the SingleFamilyHouse class has exactly one usage zone, which is ‘Living’. TABULA also does not always specify the exact construction of building elements, but always provides a prescribed U-Value. We used the U-Value and the given material information to determine thickness of each layer and implemented it into elements XML (‘teaser.data.input.inputdata.TypeElements_TABULA_DE.xml’). The material properties have been taken from MASEA Material data base (http://www.masea-ensan.de/). As there might be some differences in the assumptions for material properties from TABULA and MASEA the U-Value might not always be exactly the same as in TABULA but is always in an acceptable range. The U-Value has been calculated using combined constant values for interior and exterior heat transmission, we used a resistance of 0.17 (m2*K)/W for outer walls, windows, flat roofs and doors; 0.34 (m2*K)/W for ground floors to unheated cellars and 0.17 (m2*K)/W to direct ground coupled floors, 0.21 (m2*K)/W was taken for pitched roofs.

singlefamilyhouse

apartmentblock

multifamilyhouse

terracedhouse

Literature

[1](1, 2, 3) Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung. Vereinfachung zur geometrischen und technischen Datenaufnahme im Nichtwohngebäudebestand. 2010.
[2](1, 2) Markus Lichtmeß. Vereinfachungen für die energetische Bewertung von Gebäuden. Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, Wuppertal, 2010.
[3](1, 2) Tobias Loga, Nikolaus Diefenbach, Jens Knissel, and Rolf Born. Ein vereinfachtes, statistisch abgesichertes Verfahren zur Erhebung von Gebäudedaten für die energetische Bewertung von Gebäuden. Volume Bauforschung für die Praxis. Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt, 2005.
[4]W. Kaag, T. Ummenhöfer, and M. N. Fisch. Forschungsprojekt \dq energieeffiziente Sanierung von Bürogebäuden der 50er bis 70er Jahre - Erarbeitung einer Planungshilfe\dq . Braunschweig, 2008.
[5]Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung. Bekanntmachung der Regeln für Energieverbrauchskennwerte und der Vergleichswerte im Nichtwohngebäudebestand. 2009.
[6]DIN 12524. Baustoffe und -produkte - Wärme- und feuchteschutztechnische Eigenschaften - Tabellierte Bemessungswerte - Deutsche Fassung. Juli 2000.
[7]DIN 4108. Wärmeschutz und Energie-Einsparung in Gebäuden - Teil 4: Wärme- und feuchteschutztechnische Bemessungswerte. Februar 2013.
[8](1, 2, 3) D. Müller, M. Fuchs, M. Lauster, and J. Teichmann. EnEff:Campus - Entwicklung eines integralen Planungshilfsmittels, Projekt - Abschlussbericht. Juni 2015.
[9](1, 2, 3) Bauministerkonferenz. Bauwerkszuordnungskatalog. 2010.